Logic families are sets of chips that may implement different logical functions but use the same type of transistors and voltage levels for logical levels and for the power supplies. Ttl and cmos characteristics purpose logic gates are classified not only by their logical functions, but also by their logical families. This extra output stage is known as totempole stage because three output components q3 and q4 and diode are stacked on one another. Emittercoupled logic ecl based on bipolar transistors, but removes problems of storage time by preventing the transistors from saturating. It is called transistortransistor logic because both the logic gating function and the amplifying function are performed by transistors. Early transistorized computers were implemented using discrete transistors, resistors, diodes and capacitors.
Logic families logic families are sets of chips that may implement different logical functions, but use the same type of transistors and voltage levels for logical levels and for the power supplies. In this article, you will find the study notes on logic families which will cover the topics such as ecl, mos inverter, nand and nor with nmos, cmos, nand and nor with cmos, logic families comparison. To understand basic gate operation of following logic families. Each ic family has its own characteristics, limitations and advantages. Transistor transistor logic and complementary metal oxide semiconductor d. It first was available in 1962 and as the name implies it used just resistors and transistors. The first diodetransistor logic family of integrated circuits was introduced by signetics in 1962. Diode transistor logic in dtl diode transistor logic, all the logic is implemented using diodes and transistors. The first kind of logic families is bipolar families.
This manual concentrates on the basic building blocks of digital electronics. Section 3 describes a general method to synthesize basic twoinput and threeinput logic. The output transistor q3 and q4 form a totem pole connection. A family of diode logic and diode transistor logic integrated circuits was developed by texas instruments for the d37c minuteman ii guidance computer in 1962, but these devices were. Characteristics of logic families in digital electronics. Jan 16, 20 ttl uses a multimiter transistor at the input and is fast saturation logic circuit. Output transist or q4 is again switched off, causing the output voltage to rise to the value of vcc. Transistortransistor logic ttl is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors bjt and resistors.
The basic building block of this logic family is nand gate and there are various subfamilies of this logic gate those are standard ttl, advanced schottky ttl, schottky ttl, low power ttl, high power ttl, fast ttl etc. The first diodetransistor logic family of integrated circuits was introduced by. Rtl was made from discrete transistors and resistors and manufactured on printed circuit boards with several gates per board. The digital ics are designed using any of either bipolar devices or mos or a combination of both. This difference comes from the fact that manufacturing tolerances and. Logic families and their characteristics website staff ui. If, for instance, we wished to use a singlepole, singlethrow spst switch as the input device for a ttl logic gate, what is the best way to connect such a device to a ttl input. Section 2 gives an overview of three conventional passtransistor logic families complementary passtransistor logic cpl, double passtransistor logic dpl, and dual value logic dvl. In this article, you will find the study notes on logic families which will cover the topics such as integrated circuits, characteristics of digital circuits, logical families, digital ic terminology, dl, rtl, dtl and ttl. Transistortransistor logic 8 manufacturers data sheets the terminal specifications of several ttl families are shown in figure 9.
Propagation delay is larger transistor transistor logic. There are different families of logic gates in digital logic design. Different digital signalling technologies have been developed for logic chips, and parts that adhere to a particular signalling technology making them compatible are called a logic family. Simple digital logic gates can be made by combining transistors, diodes and resistors as discrete components. Logic families significance and types of logic families. Transistortransistorlogic topics the most commonly used bipolar logic family is transistortransistor logic. Ecl emitter coupled logic for extremely high speeds. However, during turn off, q1 functions as a transistor thereby reducing the storage charge as will be obvious below. The full forms of the abbreviations ttl and cmos in reference to logic families are a. Ee141fall 2010 ratioed logic digital integrated circuits.
Transistor transistor logic topics the most commonly used bipolar logic family is transistor transistor logic. Transistortransistor logic first introduced by in 1964 texas instruments ttl has shaped digital technology in many ways one of the most widely used families for small and mediumscale devices rarely used for vlsi standard ttl family e. The number of inputs that the gate can handle properly with out disturbing the output level. This set of notes cover in greater detail static logic families. There are various logic families namely diode logic dl resistortransistor logic rtl diodetransistor logic dtl emitter coupled logic ecl logic families can be classified broadly according to the technologies they are built with transistortransistor logic ttl cmos logic ttl and cmos logic family is most widely used ic technologies. Logic gate circuits various logic families objective. It relies on circuits built from bipolar transistors to achieve switching and maintain logic states. It is a logic family consisting completely of transistors.
A general method in synthesis of passtransistor circuits. Transistor q1 thus acts as a backtoback diode rather than as a transistor. Logic family or series logic technology supply voltage volts basic details link. Rtl is the earliest class of transistorized digital logic circuit used. Digital logic families digital logic has evolved over the years and this process has led to the development of a variety of families of digital logic integrated circuits. There are various logic families namely diode logic dl resistor transistor logic rtl diode transistor logic dtl emitter coupled logic ecl logic families can be classified broadly according to the technologies they are built with transistor transistor logic ttl cmos logic ttl and cmos logic family is most widely used ic. The transistor was called a pointcontact transistor and was a type of bipolar junction transistor bjt.
Integrated circuits integrated circuits ics are chips, pieces of semiconductor material, that contain all of the transistors, resistors, and capacitors necessary to. The first diode transistor logic family of integrated circuits was introduced by signetics in 1962. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the logic function the first transistor and the amplifying function the second transistor. In fact, it combines diodes and resistors so sometimes it is known as dioderesistor logic drl. Logic families1 study notes for electronics and communication. Chapter 5 diode transistor logic resistortransistor logic was an early form of logic used in the 1950s and early 1960s. You will note the values given for various voltages and currents are quite different from those we calculated. Cmos complementary metal oxide semiconductor made from mosfets. The logic families which fall under the first kind are called bipolar families, this include diode logic dl, emitted coupled logic ecl, resistor transistor logic rtl, diode transistor logic dtl, transistor transistor logic ttl. Transistors are basically fancyspeak for electrically controlled switches. Diode transistor logic 1 chapter 5 diode transistor logic resistor transistor logic was an early form of logic used in the 1950s and early 1960s. Dec 30, 2018 the digital ics are designed using any of either bipolar devices or mos or a combination of both.
There have been many improvements in logical families such as ttl and cmos. The rtl logic technology was one of the very first introduced. Npn transistor schottky transistor r l i l t computer engineering technology g. The reader will first see how logic gates can be constructed from transistors and then how digital logic functions are constructed using those gates. Triple transistor logic and chip metal oxide semiconductor b. Ttl transistortransistor logic families history and. The circuit examples in this section are based on a representative ttl family, lowpower schottky ls or lsttl.
For example, a certain amount of current is needed in order to operate correctly. Pada suatu lingkungan ic ttl logika 0 direpresentasikan dengan tegangan 0 sampai 0,7 volt arus searah dc, direct current, sedangkan logika 1 diwakili oleh tegangan dc setinggi 3,5 sampai 5 volt. Transistor transistor logic gate electronics tutorials. This document describes the main logic families and their characteristics. Ttl transistortransistor logic, made of bipolar transistors. Resistortransistor logic rtl sometimes also transistorresistor logic trl is a class of digital circuits built using resistors as the input network and bipolar junction transistors bjts as switching devices. Since static cmos and pseudonmos were previously discussed, we focus the static logic section on various passtransistor logic families. Transistortransistor logic ttl is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors. The families included here comprise of emitted coupled logic ecl, resistor transistor logic rtl, diode transistor logic dtl, transistor logic ttl, and diode logic dl. Logic gates in cmos indepth discussion of logic families in cmosstatic and dynamic, passtransistor, nonran tioed and ratioed logic n optimizing a logic gate for area, speed, energy, or robustness lowpower and highperformance circuitdesign techniques 6. Since dl does not use active components such as transistors, it does not provide. Bipolar transistortransistor logic introduced in 1964 texas instruments tremendous influence on the characteristics of all logic devices today standard ttl shaped digital technology standard ttl logic e. The design of the digital ics takes place by making use of bipolar devices or mos or both. The trio received a nobel prize in physics for their work in 1956.
Circuit complexity gives measure of number of transistors or gates. Ttl transistor transistor logic, made of bipolar transistors. Interconnecting any two logic families often required special techniques such as additional pullup resistors, or purposebuilt interface circuits, since the logic families may use different voltage levels to represent 1 and 0 states, and may have other interface requirements only met within the logic family. Diode logic dl is the most primitive of all the digital logic families.
One of the prominent features of transistor transistor logic signals is the ability of the inputs of the gate rise to the logical 1 if left unconnected. Cmos logic families many families of logic exist beyond static cmos comparison of logic families for a 2input multiplexer briefly overview pseudonmos differential cvsl dynamicdomino complementary passgate. In contrast to static cmos primary inputs drive gate terminals. Diodetransistor logic dtl was used in the ibm 608 which was the first alltransistorized computer. Transistor transistor logic families content writer. Many logic families were produced as individual components, each containing. Actually, there are many different ttl families, with a range of speed, power consumption, and other characteristics. Digital logic states all digital electronic circuits and microprocessor based systems contain hardware.
We start with diode transistor logic which was one of the first logic families that were proposed. When all inputs to a ttl nand gate are high, the top transistor of the totempole output. In computer engineering, a logic family may refer to one of two related concepts. It is extremely simple and inexpensive because it only uses passive components. Pdf on apr 20, 2017, shree krishna khadka and others published comparison of ic logic families find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. A bit of history the first transistors were fabricated in 1947 at bell laboratories bell labs by brattain with bardeen providing the theoretical background and shockley managed the activity. In any implementation of a digital system, an understanding of a logic elements physical capabilities and limitations, determined by its logic family, are critical to proper operation. Vbe, and if a logic high is applied to the input, current flows into the base of transistor q3 via transistors q1 and q2, which switches. V s will initially charge up quickly, but the tail end of the transient is slow. In transistor transistor logic or just ttl, logic gates are built only around transistors.
The full form of ttl is transistor transistor logic. The current drive of the transistor gatetosource voltage is reduce significantly as v. It was build in 1961 by james l bui and commercially used in logic design in 1963. Let us investigate some of such circuits using diode. There are many logic families, but most are variations of ttl, cmos, or lvds. Each family has its own advantages and limitations. Pdf on apr 20, 2017, shree krishna khadka and others published comparison of ic logic families find, read and cite all the research you. Commercially it starts with the 74 series like the 7404, 74s86 etc. Tristate transistor logic and chip metal oxide semiconductor c. Dec 05, 2016 transistor transistor logic ttl is a class of integrated circuits which maintain logic states and achieve switching with the help of bipolar transistors. So, as the name implies we use semiconductor diodes and. Current mode logic and non saturated fastest switching speed prop. Bipolar transistor transistor logic ttl first introduced by in 1964 texas instruments ttl has shaped digital technology in many ways standard ttl family e.1476 1400 868 1612 290 133 767 459 574 532 1098 951 330 1570 1510 519 1134 968 1274 1 975 1595 1055 350 448 1243 1280 449 1040 1156 695 1368 108 1135 578 807 1492 519 1115