Statistical inference requires assumptions about the probability distribution i. To have answer of each mcqs, click the start button to start with mcq test. False discovery rate controlling procedures for discrete tests. Given an observation x, the classic method of constructing exact con. Confidence intervals and estimation, data classification, tabulation and presentation, introduction to probability, introduction to statistics, measures of central tendency, measures of. Understanding type i and type ii errors hypothesis testing is the art of testing if variation between two sample distributions can just be explained through random chance or not. Alevel edexcel statistics s1 june 2008 q3b,c pdf s and varx. For example for a ttest, we assume that a random variable follows a normal distribution.
We discuss probability mass functions and some special expectations, namely, the mean, variance and standard deviation. Stepwise multiple tests procedures for discrete distributions 73 adjusted value, pj will be the probability that a pvalue as small as pj will be observed in the entire study when all null hypotheses are true. These include 1 incorporating discreteness into the multiplicity adjustments, 2 incorporating correlations versus using bonferroni or independencebased approximations, and 3 using discrete tails in twosided tests. Computational and graphical tools for multiple test functions and adjusted pvalues are developed. Optimal multiple tests for some discrete distributions by tore skr0ppa no 5 1973. The institute of mathematical statistics and the bernoulli society editorial board. In this chapter, well focus on techniques that dont require these assumptions. These appear as distinct peaks local maxima in the probability density function, as shown in figures 1 and 2.
Both a global test and a multiple comparison procedure are proposed. Sen departments ofbiostatistics and statistics, university ofnorth carolina, chapel hill, nc 275997400 email. Classify the following random variable according to whether it is discrete or continuous. This paper provides a unifying framework for these approaches and extends it to the multiple testing. If we have to conclude that two distributions vary in a meaningful way, we must take enough precaution to see that the differences are not just through random chance.
This is especially useful when dealing with probability distributions involving both a continuous and a discrete. Categorical, continuous, and discrete data can all form bimodal distributions. Pdf an improved bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of. Discrete probability distributions if a random variable is a discrete variable, its probability distribution is called a discrete probability distribution. Some remarks on simes type multiple tests of significance pranab k. Test for difference between 2 empirical discrete distributions.
I have test data where i have several large samples from discrete distributions which i am using as empirical distributions. Abstract for comparison of pairs of proportions in one multinomial distribution and in several binomial distributions multiple tests are found which maximize the minimum power of the indi vidual tests over certain alternatives. Several kinds of gof tests for discrete distributions have been recently proposed. In this case, there are two possible outcomes, which we can label as h and t. Jun 25, 2019 business statistics multiple choice questions and answers pdf is a revision guide with a collection of trivia quiz questions and answers pdf on topics. Alevel edexcel statistics s1 january 2008 q7b,c probability distribution table.
Discrete distributions every discrete random variable x has associated with it a probability mass function pmf f x. The individual tests are found to be wellknown conditional tests at equal levels. Consequently, dozens, if not hundreds, of multiple hypothesis testing. This paper provides a unifying framework for these approaches and extends it to the multiple testing setting. Shortterm actuarial mathematics examjune 2020 syllabi. Pdf multiple test functions and adjusted pvalues for test. Test and improve your knowledge of discrete probability distributions with fun multiple choice exams you can take online with. The probability of success and failure remains the same for all events. Type i and type ii errors department of statistics. Let y be the random variable which represents the toss of a coin. Internal report sufpfy9601 stockholm, 11 december 1996 1st revision, 31 october 1998 last modi. Multiple test functions and adjusted pvalues for test statistics with.
Just like variables, probability distributions can be classified as discrete or continuous. For goodnessoffit tests, small pvalues indicate that you can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that your data were not drawn from a population with the specified distribution. Consequently, goodnessoffit tests are a rare case where you look for high pvalues to identify candidate distributions. Comparing distributions by multiple testing across quantiles. The number of questions that you answer correctly on this practice quiz is an example of a discrete random. Such a property extends over multiple rvalues jointly, too.
Improve your understanding of random variables through our quiz. Such methods are usually called nonparametric or distributionfree. Multiple test functions and adjusted abstract randomized pvalues for multiple hypothesis testing with discrete test statistics are developed. Nonparametric goodnessoffit tests for discrete null distributions. Well rst look at some statistical tests, then move to methods outside the testing framework. A comparative study of goodnessoffit tests for the geometric. Here, we survey and study basic properties of some of them. Business statistics multiple choice questions and answers. Multiple test functions and adjusted pvalues for test. Yr, whose distributions are independent by assumption 1 and 3 and depend only on f xr and f yr.
Tests of hypotheses in multiple samples based on penalized disparities article pdf available in journal of the korean statistical society 30. Exact confidence intervals and hypothesis tests for. Chapter 5 discrete distributions in this chapter we introduce discrete random variables, those who take values in a. Mcqs probability and probability distributions with answers. This allows us to link the fwer with a probability under f x f y, which is bounded by the size of the global gof test. An improved bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. As described after, use of discrete distributions can dramatically improve the power of joint tests. The randomized pvalue, nonrandomized midpvalue and abstract randomized pvalue have all been recommended for testing a null hypothesis whenever the test statistic has a discrete distribution. Exam questions discrete random variables examsolutions. More generally, a multimodal distribution is a probability distribution with two or more modes, as illustrated in figure 3. Continuous distributions are to discrete distributions as type realis to type intin ml. A new adjusted nonrandomized pvalue is introduced and studied. Click the option which you consider most appropriate to questions.
Examination 110 probability and statistics examination. Nonparametric goodnessoffit tests for discrete null distributions by taylor b. The kolmogorovsmirnov test tests whether two arbitrary distributions are the same. Momentbased tests for testing distributions or particular features of distributions tail properties, kurtosis are particularly attractive due to the simplicity of their implementation. Pdf tests of hypotheses in multiple samples based on. They are universal as they may consider in the same setting univariate or multivariate parametric distributions, discrete. Stepwise multiple tests procedures for discrete distributions 73 adjusted value, pj will be the probability that a pvalue as small as pj will be observed in the entire. Pdf an improved bonferroni procedure for multiple tests. Remember that the cdf of a random variable x is the probability that the. Nonparametric goodnessoffit tests for discrete null. Goodnessoffit tests for discrete distributions statistics. Responsible for this website university of oslo library.
Some of them are based on the empirical distribution function, other on the. This quiz will examine how well you know the characteristics and types of random. Challenges arising when test statistics have discrete distributions are evident even when testing a single null. Each event has only two outcomes, and are referred to as success and failure. Jun 25, 2019 business statistics multiple choice questions and answers mcqs.
An extended sequential goodnessoffit multiple testing. I am wanting to test whether the distributions are actually different and what the difference in means is for those distributions which are actually different. Certain probability distributions occur with such regularityin reallife applications thatthey havebeen given their own names. Emerson abstract methodology extending nonparametric goodnessof. Consequently, a discrete probability distribution is often represented as a generalized probability density function involving dirac delta functions, which substantially unifies the treatment of continuous and discrete distributions. Wnen optimality is defined relative to the conditional power. Examination 110 probability and statistics examination sample examination questions the probability and statistics examination consists of 45 multiplechoice test questions.
Some remarks on simes type multiple tests of significance by. Classify the following random variables as discrete or continuous. It is a probability distribution for a discrete random variable x with probability px such that x px 1. Exact nonparametric twosample homogeneity tests for possibly discrete distributions. Discrete probability distributions dartmouth college. The test is a threehour examination based on material usually covered in undergraduate mathematics courses in mathematical probability and statistics. Discrete distributions discrete variables are treated similarly but are called mass functions instead of densities example. Computational and graphical tools for multiple test functions and adjusted p values are developed.
Handbook on statistical distributions for experimentalists. If your choice is correct you will see the right sign on option otherwise a cross. However, modern statistical software has generally failed to provide this methodology to users. Challenges arising when test statistics have discrete distributions are. On the other hand, multiple testing for discrete distributions is a well identified research field tarone 1990. Exact nonparametric twosample homogeneity tests for possibly. The discrete multiple testing method proceeds by testing successive subset intersection hypotheses in the order of the observed pvalues. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.1604 1264 1266 1599 732 644 16 408 851 971 945 1464 188 404 961 1589 992 441 1451 1475 888 113 436 1273 448 1495 729 1199 116 193 15 1567 252 818 48 961 393 892 1108 1010 1305 1395 1175 168 2 1269 386 967 135